Plant Nutrition
CAN (Kalsiyum Amonyum Nitrat) - Toros Tarım

CAN (Kalsiyum Amonyum Nitrat)

CAN is the most commonly used top fertilizer for fertilizing all plants except paddy. It contains 26% nitrogen (N) in its structure.

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What is CAN fertilizer?

CAN is the most commonly used top fertilizer for fertilizing all plants except paddy. It contains 26% nitrogen (N) in its structure. Half of this is in the form of ammonium (NH4) nitrogen and the other half in the form of nitrate (NO3) nitrogen.

Nitrate nitrogen is quickly taken up by the roots of the plants during the rapid development periods of the plants and during the laying periods. A large part of the nitrogen in the form of ammonium is converted to nitrate (NO3) nitrogen by the nitrogen bacteria in the soil depending on the soil conditions and the plants do not suffer from nitrogen deficiency. Except for rice, 75% of the total nitrogen taken by all cultivated plants during their development period is in the form of nitrate nitrogen. For this reason, Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN) fertilizer is one of the most widely used nitrogen fertilizers in our country and in the world.

Where to use?

CAN fertilizer is used in hoeing and irrigation as top fertilizer in all cultivated plants, especially grains such as wheat and barley. It is not preferred in paddy farming. If it is not given enough, the development of the plant slows down, the leaves remain small and turn pale or yellowish green. If it is given more than necessary, the development will be more, the maturation will be delayed, the entrance of the plant will decrease. Since it is a neutral reaction fertilizer, it can be used in all types of soil.

Incorrect information about CAN fertilizer.

CAN fertilizer does not change the soil pH value, it is a neutral fertilizer. CAN fertilizer applied to the soil dissolves in the soil water and forms one (+) electrically charged ammonium (NH4) cation and one (-) electrically charged nitrate (NO3) anion. Since (+) and (–) electrical charges are equal in CAN fertilizer, the pH value in the soil does not change. For this reason, the incorrectly known statement "Increases the pH of the soil" is not correct. The assumption that CAN fertilizer (or ammonium nitrate fertilizer with a commercial name of 26% nitrogen) increases the pH value of the soil comes from lime (CaCO3) and dolomite lime (CaCO3 + MgCO3), which must be added at the production stage in order to reduce the explosiveness of nitrate. Lime decomposes very slowly and very little in water. It takes 66 to 100 tons of water and a very long time for 1 kg of lime to decompose and become CaCO3 ¦ Ca+2 + CO3-2 and raise the pH value of the soil. Therefore, CAN fertilizer does not change the pH value of the soil. Another misunderstood issue in the use of CAN fertilizer is that CAN fertilizer has a liming effect on the soil and increases the amount of lime. The top layer of the soil is an average of 20 cm thick. There is an area of 1000 m2 on an area of 1 decare and a soil volume of approximately 200 m3 at a depth of 20 cm. The density of a medium textured soil is 1.25kg/liter. There is 200 x 1.25 = 250 tons of soil in an area of 1 decare and 20 cm thick. If there is 2.5% or less lime in the soil analysis report, the definition of “little lime or lime-free” is used. According to this situation, if there is 250 x 2.5% = 6.25 tons of lime in a soil, this soil is called “low calcareous soil”.

Considering that 20-40 kg of CAN fertilizer is given to 1 decare each year, since the amount of lime in the fertilizer is 25%, 5-10 kg of additional lime is added to the soil. A soil defined as “lime poor” does not become rich in lime when 5-10 kg of lime is added, even though it contains 6,250 kg of lime. Therefore, the statement "CAN fertilizer calcifies the soil" is completely wrong.

In addition, every year, 2-10 kg of calcium (Ca) is removed from one decare of crop plants all over the world. It occurs as a result of the decomposition of 2-10 kg of calcium and 5-20 kg of lime (CaCO3) per decare. Therefore, the lime added to the soil or a little more by using CAN fertilizer is already removed from the soil by the plants. If lime had easily dissolved (melted) and turned into calcium (Ca) and carbonate (CO3), there would have been no such thing as lime in the soil with the rainfall for hundreds of thousands of years.

Another misconception about CAN fertilizer is that CAN fertilizer does not fully dissolve and remains on the soil surface. As explained earlier, since lime and dolomite lime do not dissolve easily in water, this additive of CAN fertilizer applied to the soil surface remains on the surface and appears as white. However, CAN fertilizer is NH4NO3 + CaCO3 and dolomite NH4NO3 + CaMg(CaCO3)2. What appears on the soil surface is CaCO3 or CaMg(CO3)2. If the lime material was easily dissolved in the soil by precipitation or irrigation, the soil would be more permeable and the root development of the plant would be easier. Because calcium is an element that improves the physical properties of the soil. It is necessary to correct the misconceptions about CAN fertilizer and ammonium nitrate fertilizer with dolomite, and to give the nitrogen needed by the plant in the form of CAN or ammonium nitrate in top fertilization based on soil analysis. It is the most effective element. The best way to give nitrogen is CAN and Ammonium Nitrate fertilizers.

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